The investigators are investigating the effects of traffic-related diesel exhaust on lung function and the immune system in those at risk for COPD. The individual will be exposed to either filtered air (FA) or carefully controlled levels of diesel exhaust (DE) in our exposure chamber. Post exposure the individual will complete a steady state exercise test. 24h later, a procedure called bronchoscopy (whereby a thin, flexible tube is placed down the throat and into the lungs) will be used so that samples can be collected from the lungs. After 1 month the entire procedure will be repeated with the alternative exposure.
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